Since it was the most important Christian holiday and there had been a break in the fighting after Trier was captured, it can be assumed that the pause and subsequent devastation of Trier were deliberately timed to coincide with Easter. It also proved for the Franks the strategic importance of Paris at a time when it also was one of the largest cities in West Francia. [2][5] The Elbe estuary and the already fortified city of Hamburg were attacked by Danish warriors in 845. During this phase the Norsemen attacked the monastery at Noirmountier France every summer for many years. The news of Godfrid's successes in the Rhineland and his acquisition of Frisia attracted other Vikings from Denmark. Charles the bald alternately fought or tried to negotiate with the raiders but with little success. The map opposite shows the result.[2]. 882 – The Northmen in the month of October intrenched themselves at Conde, and horribly devastated the kingdom of Carloman,’ while King Charles with his army took his stand on the Somme at Barleux. Apart from Aachen, Prüm was the cultural centre of the Frankish Empire. Norwegian Vikings. The raid led by Ragnar as depicted in the show has little in common with Reginherus' actual raid on Paris in 845 CE though elements of this raid were used in Season 3 when Ragnar’s army acts as mercenaries for Princess Kwenthrith of Mercia and attac… Although these defences reduced the number of Viking raids, they did not stop them completely. "Viking Raids on Paris." Previously, the Vikings had raided England (Lindisfarne, 793) and Ireland (Dublin, 795). Instead of refusing this request and pressing the obvious advantage he had, Charles agreed to pay the Viking chief 7,000 pounds in gold and silver to leave the city and, further, allowed him and his men to keep whatever they had taken from Paris. In the evening, after their wounds had healed, the army of the dead moved into Odin's hall together, where there was always a filled drinking horn and a good meal. save. Mark, Joshua J. Last modified November 13, 2018. Charlemagne put a stop to this in 798 CE but when Saxony was conquered in 804 CE, the Danish king Godfred attacked and ably took Frisia from the Franks. He is said to have broken down in tears during his audience with the king and claimed that the only resistance he met from the Franks was in the form of the long-dead saint who had killed so many of his men in the city and on their way home. After this division of the empire, almost all areas of the former great empire experienced conflicts over power of a civil warlike nature. The Vikings then moved further up the Rhine. The old Roman cities of Trier, Cologne, Xanten and Bonn were also located in the Rhineland and were used by the Franks as centres of trading and episcopal seats. Odo, the future king, was sent to Charles, emperor of the Franks, to implore for help for the stricken city. The Vikings attack the island of Iona in Scotland three times. The amount of plunder and the number of captives taken was significant. As there was no bridge across the Seine at this point, the rest of Charles' army could do nothing to stop Reginherus and he sailed on to Paris, reaching the city on Easter Sunday. For the celebrations he was accompanied by numerous armoured knights; thus many of his best armed warriors were not available to defend their homeland in the winter of 881. The Vikings then turned their aggression eastwards towards the Rhineland. However, since no wrecks of such boats have been found in the North Sea to date, their use for coastal navigation must be assumed to be rare. The siege was the most important event of the reign of Charles the Fat, and a turning point in the fortunes of the Carolingian dynasty and the history of France. These contacts were often warlike in nature. However, the lands outside its walls were devastated. As they went, they plundered villages and towns or extorted money from their inhabitants (Brandschatzung). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The abbey burned down to the ground, "since there was no one left alive to fight the fire". His campaigns against the people of Saxony were especially brutal and epitomized by the Massacre of Verden in 782 CE when he had 4,200 Saxons executed; an event remarked on even by his own Frankish historians who struggled to cast it in a positive light. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. On the condition that the Viking leader Godfrid was baptised, he was given Frisia as a fief. They also raid Ireland in 795 and France in 799. Those prisoners whose families or friends could pay the Vikings a ransom were returned; the others were sold as slaves. The 845 CE siege almost certainly enriched Ragnar but its lasting significance was the precedent set by Charles the Bald of paying a Viking leader off for peace. Vikings in France: 9th - 12th century As elsewhere in northwest Europe, Viking raids on the coast of France gradually evolve into settlement. 17 oct. 2013 - Map of Viking Raids in France: 9th - 10th Centuries Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Almost all Vikings who used axes in combat were from the … One of the most famous Viking raids was the Siege of Paris in 845 AD. When Ragnar and his raiders return to Paris in Season 4, Rollo has built towers for defense and stretched a chain across the Seine. Charles the Bald assembled an army quickly and mobilized them on either side of the river to protect the city but the two divisions were unequal in number. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. He sent his messengers, the valkyries, to escort the bravest warriors killed in a battle to Valhalla. The Saxons appealed to the Danes for help and Denmark did what it could. [20] Near Mainz, the Vikings were defeated by an army under Count Henry of Babenberg and the Archbishop of Mainz, Liutbert (episcopate 863–889);[2] they probably set fire to Cologne afterwards. Mark, J. J. [2], In late 881, Vikings, who had overwintered in Flanders, set off on a military expedition to neighbouring lands. The first significant Viking raid came in May of 841 CE, a year after Louis I's death, when the Viking chief Asgeir sacked and burned Rouen and looted the Monastery of Fontenelle and the Abbey of Saint-Denis. The thesis evaluates 9th century Viking raids on the Dordogne river system in southwestern France. Viking raids were a characteristic of the Scandinavian early medieval pirates called the Norse or Vikings, particularly during the first 50 years of the Viking Age (~793-850). True to his word, Rollo became the king's champion and Viking raids up the Seine on the surrounding countryside were ended. Of the manuscript collection, however, which was often praised by chroniclers before, only about one tenth of the collection was able to be rescued in front of the marauding Vikings; the rest perished in the flames. The Rhineland was also affected by this. The ease with which Godfred had been able to subdue Frisia, the lure of the wealth of the Franks, and possibly the need to avenge those killed in the Saxon Wars, encouraged other Scandinavian leaders to try their hand at invading Francia. Consequence of this was that the Vikings returned to Flanders and Dutch Limburg. In 864, they left there on a second campaign into the Lower Rhine territories and ambushed and plundered the city of Xanten which had been founded by the Romans.[6]. Of particular note are the city of Aachen, where Charlemagne had his imperial palace built, and also the Benedictine abbey in Prüm – the latter mainly because of its scriptorium and associated library. In late December 881, they plundered the imperial abbey of Kornelimünster, not far from Aachen, as well as the monasteries of Stablo and Malmedy in the Ardennes. Most areas of the Rhineland fell into the dominion of Lothair I and were named Lothringen. The treaty between Charles and Rollo established the first period of lasting peace since the Kingdom of West Francia was founded in 843 CE and provided the basis for a stable region. The river was blocked by bridges that crossed and prevented even the Viking ships passage. During this time, the Vikings attacked the Frankish Empire sailing their ships up the big rivers from the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the show, once the Vikings have won Paris, they return home but leave Rollo behind to secure a landing base for future raids; this leads to the historic offer the king makes to Rollo and his vassalage to Charles the Simple. If, as in the raids of 851-852 CE, they found little worth plundering in the ravaged countryside and communities, they could simply range a bit farther afield until the king paid them to leave. [2], When they had stormed the imperial city, the conquerors, presumably with calculated, strategic intent, desecrated St. Mary's Church (now the cathedral), the tomb of Charlemagne and the royal stables. Much of the expected treasure had been carried away into the surrounding countryside by the frightened inhabitants. Since Vikings had also settled in Ireland, England and Russia at the same time, trade goods expanded to include products from and beyond the more distant regions. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Regino of Prüm records numerous victims among the population, but Archbishop Bertulf of Trier managed to escape to Metz with a few of his followers. The loot is enormous. Written by Joshua J. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. When the Vikings passed by, Cologne's churches and monasteries were still charred ruins. The city itself proved to be [frustrating for the Vikings]. Mystery of History Volume 2, Lesson 39 #MOHII39 [23], In 884, a body of troops led by Count Henry of Babenberg succeeded in recapturing Duisburg, and the Vikings withdrew from the rest of the Lower Rhine region in return for more payments. Attached to the monastery was a hospital and an important monastic school in which the offspring of the Frankish nobility were educated. Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes (on the French coast) in 842 and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes. The Viking raids and subsequent settlements define the period known... Vikings (2013-present) is a historical fiction TV series created... Asgeir returns to sack region from his base at Rouen. The Viking raids on Paris are depicted in the TV series Vikings in which Ragnar Lothbrok assaults the city and takes it (Season 3) and Rollo later defends it (Season 4). Map of France, 10th Century CEby Bourrichon - Cyberprout (CC BY-SA). The Frankish king had been collecting reinforcements, and was now at the head of a considerable army in a position to block the Viking escape. The peace agreement was additionally sealed by his wedding to a Frankish princess. In the abbey church was the grave of Emperor Lothair I who died there in 855 after concluding the Treaty of Prüm. [9], The situation changed when the so-called Great Heathen Army suffered a severe defeat in 878 at Edington in southwest England at the hands of King Alfred the Great (reigned 871-899) and his army suffered a severe defeat. east of the Meuse. Books The tower was defended by Frankish troops led by Odo and his younger brother Robert (later Robert I, r. 922-923) and held; the Vikings were driven back to their ships. (2018, November 13). Prior to the Saxon wars, the Danes and Franks were acquainted through trade and there is no evidence of military conflict. By this time at the latest, the first contacts with the Vikings who, like the Saxons, worshipped pagan gods, took place. The monastery of St. Paulinus was spared.[14]. The Viking raids on Paris are depicted in the TV series Vikingsin which Ragnar Lothbrok assaults the city and takes it (Season 3) and Rollo later defends it (Season 4). Within ten years, the Vikings began attacks along the North coast of France. They established a settlement in Ireland, known as Dublin. [2], Trade and navigation on the Rhine between 864 and 881, Raids on cultural centres in the Aachen area, 884 Frankish campaign against the Vikings. Horik agreed quickly with the terms and “sent envoys to Louis the German with an offer to release all the captives taken by the invaders of 845 and promised he would try to recover the stolen treasure and return it to its rightful owners” (Ferguson, 96-97). Even more worrying was the fact that the Vikings were beginning to show signs of dysentery, which further reduced their fighting ability. This battle was described in the Song of Ludwig (Ludwigslied). [2], On 6 January 882, Three Kings' Day, a detachment of Vikings which, according to historical reports, was about 300 strong, attacked the largest Frankish abbey, Prüm in the Eifel mountains. In the east, the Rhineland ends close to the Rhine itself, being bounded by low mountain ranges such as the Siebengebirge or Bergisches Land. The imperial monastery of St. Maximin and the abbeys of St. Martin [de] and St. Symphorian, north of the ancient city wall, were destroyed; the latter never being rebuilt. The siege of Paris of 885–886 was part of a Viking raid on the Seine, in the Kingdom of the West Franks. They raided numerous villages in the area of the Meuse and razed the towns of Liège, Maastricht and Tongeren to the ground.[10]. This shook the essence of Frankish culture. The tactics employed by Louis the Pious, Lothar, Charles the Bald, and Charles the Fat established clear precedents for the gift of lands around Rouen and the lower Seine…Even so, it is hard not to sympathize with them, in particular with the two Charleses who made the most active use of the policy, or to see what alternatives they had. The city was being attacked by the Norsemen who have been scavenging the area for the past 4 years, yet who had never tried taking over the city of Paris. Following the death of Charles the Bald in 877 CE, the throne was held by his successors until the last one died in 884 CE without an heir and the nobles of West Francia invited Charles the Fat (youngest son of Louis the German) to reign. The main building material in the Frankish Empire was wood. Reginherus drove his ships against the smaller force, defeated them, and hanged 111 of the survivors. Their request was denied and so the Vikings laid siege to the city. The Annals of Saint-Bertin (c. 840-880 CE), which record the Viking raids, names the leader of the 845 CE siege of Paris as Reginfred or Reginherus, who is only known for this one raid. Reginherus sent emissaries to Charles indicating he was open to negotiations. [After his death] temporarily disappointed men were driven to recoup their losses elsewhere. In c. 858 CE Bjorn Ironside, supposed son of Ragnar Lothbrok, and the Viking chief Hastein (also known as Hasting) burned the Abbey of Fontenelle and captured the monasteries of Paris, holding them for ransom until paid by Charles. In December 881, Vikings of this group sailed on at least three ships under their leader, Godfrid, up the Rhine. Commanders under Charles the Simple made some gains in 897-898 CE in defeating the Vikings but they could not dislodge them or stop the raids. For all its departures from fact, however, the series' depictions of the Viking raids on Paris provide an engaging slant on a fascinating time in the evolution of the French state. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The series is entertainment, not history, and so takes liberties with the known facts to achieve its ends. 820: Thirteen ships reach the Seine Bay. The siege is the subject of an eyewitness account in the Latin poem Bella Parisiacae urbis of Abbo Cernuus. Viking raids extended deep into the Frankish territory, and included the sacking of many prominent towns such as Rouen, Paris and the abbey at Jumièges. [12], A band of peasants from the area resisted the attackers, but were massacred. Abbo writes: Meanwhile Paris was suffering not only from the sword outside but also from a pestilence within which brought death to many noble men. On Maundy Thursday, 5 April, 882, the Vikings captured the city itself. License. (104). Despite the invasion of West Francia by the Great Army in 878, no defensive measures had apparently been taken in East Francian Rhineland, since the city walls of individual cities were only reinforced when the Vikings were almost at the city gates. In the course of February and March 882 they attacked as far as Koblenz, pillaging and murdering, but the city was able to resist them thanks to strong fortifications dating back to Roman times. In March of the same year the Vikings of Ragnar Lodbrog sailed up the Seine and plundered Paris. The Viking rampage only ended when Charles paid them 5,000 pounds silver to go home. [19], Charles III besieged the Normans with his army at a safe distance and, after twelve days, began negotiations with thems. However, their violent resistance and resultant Viking casualties caused the invaders to turn back, and they retreated north through the Eifel towards their army encampment. Asgeir left the region a wealthy chieftain and this encouraged Reginherus to try for an even greater prize than Rouen: the city of Paris. The Franks spent the night repairing damage to the tower's walls and, in the morning, the Vikings struck again and were again repelled. When the Vikings came up the Seine, defense of the city was in the hands of Odo, Count of Paris (later King of West Francia, 888-898 CE) who would become the Frankish hero of the siege of 885-886 CE. Such raids mainly affected areas on the Seine and in modern-day Netherlands and Belgium. Related Content We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The spring waters of the Seine brought over 120 Viking barques carried the 5000 warriors, under the command of the Danish Viking Reginheri. The first Viking raid to strike Francia via the Seine came in 820 CE and more would follow, the most dramatic being the Siege of Paris in 845 CE and 885-886 CE. The city of Paris, situated on the small island Île de la Cité will wake up to the sounds of the city bell. The Viking raids in the Rhineland were part of a series of invasions of Francia by the Vikings that took place during the final decades of the 9th century. Their focus was put on France, England, and the Mediterranean parts of the world. Logs were tied together and rafted downriver to the markets, and other commodities and travellers were transported on rafts which, in some cases, were very long and wide. On their first visit to Cologne in January 882, after tough negotiations, Cologne paid a fortune in silver for their withdrawal (see also Danegeld). 836-838: British victory against the Vikings . Initially, the attacks took the form of raids and the Vikings withdrew to their homeland afterwards. [7] There were different construction methods for boats. Vikings in France . The area known today as the Rhineland begins at the confluence of the Moselle and the Rhine and ends at Emmerich, where the Rhine divides into the Lek and the Waal to form a delta. [13] Among the monastery's greatest treasures was one of the most precious relics of Western Christianity, the Sandals of Christ, which were carried to safety before the Viking onslaught. The Parisians bought the raiders off with 7,000 pounds of silver. As a result, trade in the Rhineland flourished. the Utrecht ship) which, in good weather, were suitable for coastal navigation. [22], That year, the Vikings withdrew from the Middle Rhine and settled permanently on the Lower Rhine. Ragnar Lothbrok & Krákaby AU Library, Campus Emdrup (CC BY-SA). Both types were difficult to manoeuvre and were used for transporting heavy goods such as rocks. In 863, the Normans conquered Utrecht and Nijmegen and established permanent winter camps in both towns; Dorestad was razed during the campaign. In 860 CE, Charles contracted with the Viking Chieftain Veland to fight for him against other Viking bands in exchange for 3,000 pounds in silver and Veland worked, with more or less success, to secure the lower Seine region. In 885 CE the Vikings returned to Paris. As a result, the Vikings set all the buildings of the monastery on fire. Horik had earlier sent a fleet of ships up the River Elbe to attack East Francia, burning and sacking Hamburg, but failing to achieve his objectives. Mark, published on 13 November 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. During this period of attacks the Norse warriors raided towns and monasteries in England and France. Previously, this region was mostly named after towns or counties, for example, the Gelderland, or Land of Cleves (Klever Land). On 20 January, the king died unexpectedly in Frankfurt, whereupon the army he led against the Vikings was disbanded. Raiding as a lifestyle was first established in Scandinavia by the 6th century, as illustrated in the epic English tale of Beowulf; contemporary sources referred to the raiders as "ferox gens" (the fierce people). In 844, Vikings stormed Seville (then controlled by the Arabs); in 859, they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north. The raids seem to have been inspired by the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne in 814 CE or, at least, correlated with it. 05 Feb 2021. ): This page was last edited on 26 January 2021, at 16:09. During these raids, the Vikings plundered the ancient Roman cities of Cologne, Bonn, Xanten, Trier and also the imperial city of Aachen, in which Charlemagne was buried and on whose throne the Frankish kings were crowned in Aachen Cathedral. Nov 8, 2018 - Map of Viking Raids in France: 9th - 10th Centuries Executed Vikings. In 870, following the Treaty of Meersen, the Rhineland was assigned to East Francia. For most of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries, Vikings ravaged European communities in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Central Europe and Russia. After a few days of rest, they plundered Trier on Easter Sunday. It was not designated as such until 1798, when French Revolutionary troops occupied this territory. The Vikings left behind under the leadership of Sigfrid in Ascloha were initially discouraged from further pillaging by payments of money.[2]. The warriors who gathered there, called Einherjar, practised the art of warfare during the daytime. The quarries were often ruined Roman buildings near the Rhine, but there were also quarries in the neighbouring mountain ranges. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The result was a withdrawal of the invaders who were also paid from the church's goods. Scholar Lars Brownworth writes: With your help we create free content that helps millions of people learn history all around the world. The Norwegian Vikings were utterly crazed warriors. The princess, Gisla (Gisela) is said to be a daughter of King Lothair II. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Christianity. Viking Brittany refers to the Viking occupation of Brittany during the High Middle Ages. Charles III was residing in Italy at this time because of his imperial coronation which had taken place on 12 February 881 in Rome. The Viking forces were led by a Norse chieftain named "Reginherus", or Ragnar, who tentatively has been identified with the legendary saga character Ragnar Lodbrok. 882 - The Northmen in the month of October intrenched themselves at Conde, and horribly devastated the kingdom of Carloman,' while King Charles with his army took his stand on the Somme at Barleux. Once again, they devastated numerous villages that had just been rebuilt. Jul 24, 2017 - Viking Raids in France. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. [16][17], After his return from Italy, Emperor Charles III held an Imperial Diet at Worms in May 882, and raised a large army, in which Franks, Bavarians, Swabians, Thuringians, Saxons, Frisians and Lombards participated. As a result, the Vikings often captured entire towns, villages and monasteries without fighting. In 820, the first major attack by Vikings on the Frankish Empire was recorded, taking place around the mouth of the river Seine, and at the same time other Vikings probably invaded Flanders. A fleet of Viking longships sailed up the River Seine heading for eastern France and new lands and cities to plunder, When they reached Paris the Vikings offered to spare the city if they were allowed free passage up the river. Scholar Janet L. Nelson writes: The aristocracy whom Godfred raised up had acquired an appetite for status and wealth. The heartland of the Carolingians lay, for the most part, in territories that were part of the Rhineland. Some were made of large, hollowed out, tree-trunks; others were more like rafts. Rollo resigned as ruler of Normandy in 927 CE, dying in c. 930 CE and Charles would remain in captivity until his death in 929 CE but each man would leave behind a legacy of stability and freedom from Viking raids in West Francia for the first time since the reigns of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. The abbey had extensive estates; more than a hundred churches were under its administration; its lands extended far into the present-day Netherlands, and the forests along the Moselle also belonged to the monastery. The Vikings were bold raiders, perhaps because of the code of honour they are purported to have had, According to legend, the god of war, Odin, from the Asa line of gods, prepared to fight for the world and its survival. Unable to take the tower or breach the city walls, the Vikings settled in for a long siege. The Franks. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Viking_raids_in_the_Rhineland&oldid=1002909907, Military history of the Carolingian Empire, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. They occupied Xanten and Duisburg and made small raids from there into the surrounding area, especially the region of Xanten and the Ruhrgebiet. From the Rhineland, which can be regarded as the nucleus of Frankish culture, the Franks had previously conquered almost the whole of Central Europe and established a great empire. During the last decades of the 9th century, Danes are in possession of the territory round the lower reaches of the Seine. There was actually only one tower and, instead of a chain, a low-lying bridge. When Lothair I died in 855 without an heir to his throne, the power struggles intensified. Charles directed his army to save the Abbey of St. Denis, leaving Paris to fend for itself. After committing these outrages, they set the palace and the imperial baths on fire. The Vikings advancing to Metz were met on 11 April 882 by an army led by the Bishop of Metz, Wala, the Archbishop of Trier, Bertulf, and Count Adalhard II of Metz in the Battle of Remich. [2], The Vikings were not a united people, but a collection of warring tribes; small wars between Viking tribes were frequent, united large-scale attacks were preceded in principle by purposeful diplomatic negotiations. The Vikings were only one of several groups who found the weakness of the Carolingian empire an attractive target. The raiders had no idea what to expect, however, and were quickly defeated by the shore guard. 841: Asgeir's fleet sails up the River Seine (from 12th May), takes the city of Rouen (14th May) and burns it down. The Rhineland, the heartland of the Frankish Empire, was little affected by the Vikings at that time. Despite the warlike situation on the northern border, many Vikings were used as mercenaries in Frankish campaigns. In autumn 883 they landed in Frisia, rowed up the Rhine with Godfrid's consent and set up camp near Duisburg. The first Viking raid in Francia came in 820 CE when 13 ships made their way up the Seine & put ashore. As a rule, these Viking leaders were expected to be baptized beforehand, since the Frankish empire was considered by the Frankish nobility to be a gift from God and so there were no thrones for higher nobles who were unbelievers. Within the walls there was not ground in which to bury the dead. At the same time, in Mainz, the dilapidated Roman walls were quickly fortified again and the citizens of Mainz began to dig a ditch around the city. The Vikings did not send many ships on their first raids. Many inhabitants of the affected regions were carted off as slaves.[1]. Odo is depicted accurately only so far as his defense of the city; his relationship with Therese and plot to overthrow Charles, as well as the more lurid aspects of the TV character, are fictions. Oct 17, 2013 - Map of Viking Raids in France: 9th - 10th Centuries A Timeline of Viking Raids and Attacks Green shows subject to Viking Raids (Wikimedia Commons) Go to years: 793_to_799 802_to_895 900_to_994 1000_to_1263 The battle was won by the invaders and Bishop Wala fell on the battlefield, alongside many armoured knights and peasants. Abbo relates how Sigfried met under truce with the bishop of the city, Gauzelin, and Count Odo to offer them terms but these were rejected. Raids. The Frankish king Charles the Bald assembled a smaller army in response but after the Vikings … None of the brothers were interested in helping the others in any way and each would, to greater or lesser degrees, be left to deal with Viking raids on their kingdoms on their own. In the late 700s, the Vikings invaded the British Isles, including areas of Ireland and Scotland. War was inevitable. By the 830s, the Vikings arrived from Denmark and began raiding in what is today France, finding the standing Carolingian government in the midst of an ongoing civil war.